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Jean and the ENIAC Team

Jean & ENIAC Co-inventors | Group image of several members of the ENIAC team, 1946. Left: ENIAC co-inventors Presper Eckert and Homer Spence.  Center: ENIAC co-inventor John Mauchly. Back Center: Jean Jennings Bartik. Right: Herman Goldstine and Ruth Lichterman (U.S. Army photo from the archives of the ARL Technical Library)Jean & Arthur Burks | Jean programs ENIAC with the assistance of Senior Engineer Arthur Burks, 1946. (Image originally appeared in Science Illustrated in 1946.  The image was given to Jean Jennings Bartik in 1946, who in turn (along with her neice Diane Passmore) gifted it to The Jean Jennings Bartik Computing Museum in 2002. The Bartik Museum has the only known (at this time) existing original print of this image. All rights served).Jean & Fran Bilas | Left: Jean Jennings Bartik.  Right: Frances Bilas Spence.  Two of six women programmers, Jean and Fran operate the ENIAC's main control panel at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering. (U.S. Army photo from the archives of the ARL Technical Library)Ruth Lichterman & Marlyn Wescoff | Left (Kneeling): Ruth Lichterman. Right (Standing): Marlyn Wescoff. The women in this image were frequently misidentified as others, including being thought to be Jean Jennings Bartik and Kay McNulty Mauchly.  However, when Jean and Kay toured the Bartik museum in 2002 during its grand opening, they confirmed that the image was of Ruth and Marlyn.  Ruth Lichterman and Marlyn Wescoff were two of the six original female ENIAC prorammers. (U.S. Army photo from the archives of the ARL Technical Library)Jean & Arthur Burks work on ENIAC | Left: Arthur Burks.  Right: Unknown male engineer and Jean Jennings Bartik. Jean always found the ENIAC engineers to be extremely helpful and friendly. According to Jean, they treated her with the respect of an equal once they discovered she (and the other female programmers) were good at their jobs and, in fact, could make their own jobs easier. (U.S. Army photo from the archives of the ARL Technical Library)Jean, Marlyn and Ruth program ENIAC | Left (Back): Jean Jennings Bartik. Center: Marlyn Wescoff.  Right (Kneeling): Ruth Lichterman. Jean Jennings Bartik, Marlyn Wescoff, and Ruth Lichterman program the ENIAC. (U.S. Army photo from the archives of the ARL Technical Library) Jean's friend Kay McNulty Mauchly Antonelli | Born Kathleen Rita McNulty on Feb. 12, 1921, in Creeslough Gaeltacht of County Donegal, Ireland during the Irish War of Independence, Kay's family immigrated to America in 1924. She attended Hallahan Catholic Girls High School in Philadelphia and graduated in 1938. She then attended graduated Chestnut Hill College for Women and graduated with a degree in mathematics in June 1942. In June 1945, Kay was selected to be one of the programmers on the ENIAC. (Donated by Kay McNulty Mauchly Antonelli)Jean's friend Kay at the Moore School of Engineering | Left: Kay McNulty Mauchly Alyse Snyder, and Sis Stump operate the differential analyzer in the basement of the Moore School of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Penn.  The differential analyzer was a mechanical analog computer used extensively in the assembly of artillery firing tables prior to the invention of the ENIAC. A differential analyzer was shown in operation in the 1951 film When Worlds Collide. (U.S. Army photo from the archives of the ARL Technical Library)Kay and John Mauchly Marry | Jean's friend and fellow "computer" programmer married ENIAC co-inventor John Mauchly. Left: John Mauchly.  Right: Kay McNulty Mauchly. According to Jean, Kay's mother initially disliked John and didn't want Kay to marry him. (Courtesy of John and Kay's son Bill Mauchly)John and Kay at the Beach | John Mauchly walked Jean down the aisle at her wedding.  John asked Kay out on a date for the first time at Jean's wedding reception. Left: Kay McNulty Mauchly. Right: John Mauchly. (Courtesy of John and Kay's son Bill Mauchly.)Jean and the BINAC Team | Jean's BINAC Team. Front row from left to right: Presper Eckert, Frazier Welsh, Jim Weiner, Brad Sheppard & John Mauchly. Back row from left to right: Al Auerbach, Jean Jennings Bartik, Marvin Jacoby, Jim Sims, Lou Wilson, Bob Shaw & Jerry Smoliar. (Courtesy of Jean Jennings Bartik Personal Collection)Jean and the UNIVAC Team | Jean's Univac Team. Front row from left to right: Fran Morello, Bob Shaw, Pres Eckert, Brad Sheppard, Frazier Welch, John Mauchly, Jim Weiner, Al Auerbach, Betty Snyder Holberton. Second row from left to right: John Simms, Marvin Jacoby, Paul Winsor, Jerry Smoliar, Arthur Gehring, Betty Jay, Ed Blumenthal, Bob Mock, Jean Jennings Bartik, Herman Lukoff, Bernie Gordon, Ned Shriner. Third row from left to right: George Gingrich, Marvin Gottlieb, Lou Wilson, Doug Wendell, Charlie Michaels, Ben Stad, Seymore Levitt, Larry Jones. (Courtesy of Jean Jennings Bartik Personal Collection)Betty Snyder Holberton | Jean's friend and fellow ENIAC programmer Francis Elizabeth "Betty" Snyder Holberton, March 17, 1917-Dec. 8, 2001. Picture gifted to Jean Jennings Bartik by Betty Synder Holberton with verbal permission to use for Jean's personal/professional endeavors. Jean gifted the image to the Jean Jennings Bartik Computing Museum in 2002. According to Jean, the portrait of Betty was taken between 1939 and 1944 by a photographer (deceased) for a photography studio that was no longer operational.  According to Betty's daughter, Priscilla Holberton, the photograph was taken at Loeb Studios (out-of-business) in 1944.  Other images from this photo shoot are held in a private family collection of photographs by Priscilla Holberton. (Image courtesy of the Bartik Computing Museum with a special acknowledgement and thank you to Priscilla Holberton for her support of the Bartik Museum).Jean's Friend Betty | Betty Holberton poses for a picture in 1946. Holberton was born Frances Elizabeth Snyder in Philadelphia in 1917. Betty was hired by the Moore School of Engineering to work as a "computor," and was soon chosen to be one of the six women to program the ENIAC. Classified as "subprofessionals," Betty, along with Kay McNulty, Marlyn Wescoff, Ruth Lichterman, Jean Jennings Bartik and Fran Bilas, programmed the ENIAC to perform calculations for ballistics trajectories electronically. (Courtesy of Jean JENNINGS Bartik Computing Museum)Kay McNulty and Betty Holberton | Jean's friends and fellow computers Kay McNulty and Betty Holberton pose for a picture in the fall of 1946. Kay would later marry John Mauchly, the co-inventor of the ENIAC. (Courtesy of Jean JENNINGS Bartik Computing Museum)Jean in Philadelphia | Jean in front of her apartment at 2317 Delancey Place in Philadelphia, PA. (Courtesy of Jean JENNINGS Bartik Computing Museum)Jean Receives Birthday Flowers | Jean and a fellow "computer" from Kansas outside Jean's apartment at 2317 Delancy Place in Philadelphia, PA. (Courtesy of Jean JENNINGS Bartik Computing Museum)Jean's friend Kay McNulty Mauchly Antonelli | Kay McNulty married John Mauchly, co-inventor of the ENIAC, in 1948. After a long battle with Parkinson's Disease, John died in 1980. Kay would later marry famous photographer Severo Antonelli in 1985. Kay died on April 20, 2006, after a short battle with cancer. She was 85. (Courtesy of John and Kay's son Bill Mauchly)The ENIAC Women | The only picture of all the ENIAC women, except Betty Holberton (who took the picture). The picture was taken in 1946 in front of their favorite restaurant. Shown in the picture is Coporal Goldstein (maintenance engineer with Homer Spence for a short while), Fran Bilas Spence, Corporal Homer Spence, Jim Cummings (draftsman), Marlyn Wescoff Melchior, John Mauchly, Ruth Lichterman Titlebaum, Jean Jennings Bartik, Kathleen McNulty Mauchly Antonelli. (Donated by Jean Jennings Bartik and Kay Mauchly Antonelli)