Practice Academic Honesty

When should I provide a parenthetical reference or note?

PARAPHRASING EXAMPLES

MLA Parenthetical Reference Examples
According to academic librarians, high school students often access university library resources judiciously (Ury).
HINT: This article is available in html format. The original page numbers are not preserved. Consequently, you do not list page numbers in the parenthetical reference.

There is an increasing problem with plagiarism in computer programming and in the area of engineering (Boisevert and Irwin 23).
HINT: This article is available in PDF format. PDF files are exact online reproductions of the original article. The page numbers appear in the article, just as they did in the orginal journal. Consequently, the page number for the source of the information appears in the parenthetical reference.

APA Parenthetical Reference Examples
According to academic librarians, high school students often access university library resources judiciously (Ury, 1996).
HINT: This article is available in html format. The original page numbers are not preserved. Consequently, many people do not list page numbers in a parenthetical reference. Check with your professor to see if he or she requires page or paragraph numbers.

There is an increasing problem with plagiarism in computer programming and in the area of engineering (Boisevert and Irwin, 2006, p. 23).
HINT: This article is available in PDF format--an exact online reproduction of the original article. The page numbers appear in the article, just as they did in the orginal journal. Provide page numbers from pdf files or printed publications in parenthetical references.

Turabian Note Examples
According to academic librarians, high school students often access university library resources judiciously.1

1. Connie J. Ury, "Value Added: High School Research Projects in an Academic Library," Clearing House 69, no. 5 (May/June 1996), http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=9606250574&site=ehost-live&scope=site (accessed June 9, 2010).

HINT:This article is available in html format. The original page numbers are not preserved. Consequently, you do not list page numbers in the parenthetical reference or note.

There is an increasing problem with plagiarism in computer programming and in the area of engineering.1

1. Ronald F. Boisvert and Mary Jane Irwing, "Plagiarism on the Rise ," Communications of the ACM 49, no. 6 (June 2006): 23-24, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=21080977&site=ehost-live&scope=site (accessed June 9, 2010).

HINT: This article is available in PDF format--an exact online reproduction of the original article. The page numbers appear in the article, just as they did in the orginal journal. The page number appears in the parenthetical reference and the page numbers of the article appear in the note.

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Current Author: Sarah Park
Created (July 2006); Revised (June 2010)
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